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Health Improvement - Alcohol and Drugs

Jenny and the Bear

Topic: Tobacco

Description: The “Jenny and the Bear” story book and Name the Teddy competition, are part of a co-ordinated programme which aims to increase awareness of the effects of secondhand smoke on children and what parents/carers can do to ensure their children are not exposed to its harmful effects.

The programme consists of a story being read to pupils by their class teacher, followed by a classroom activity to agree a name for the bear in the story.  The teddy bear names are then entered into a competition and the winners will be awarded a teddy mascot for their class (1 class from each local authority area in GG&C).  Letters are sent out to all primary schools in GG&C at the start of the school year with information on how to register for the programme.

The story of the little girl and her teddy offers the opportunity to explore the themes of secondhand smoke, a favourite toy, rewarding positive behaviours and consideration for others. In addition, all children who take part in the programme will be given a booklet version of the story to take home. It is hoped that this will support parents/carers reading to their children and raising awareness of the issues of secondhand smoke within the wider family.

Type: Lesson Plan, Online Resource, Film, Book

Target group: Early

IT/practical requirements: A video version of this story is available as a YouTube link for live streaming

Implications for staff: None

Cost attached: No

Resource link: NHSGGC: Jenny and the Bear / Name the Teddy

QA Tool: Jenny and the Bear QA Tool

Choices for Life: Liam’s Story (Tobacco)

Topic: Tobacco and Peer Pressure

Description: Togther with PACE Theatre, Choices for Life have produced a series of dramas “Someday” which are all interlinked. They tell the story of Liam, Sophie and Scott as they experience peer pressure, smoking, drugs and alcohol for the first time.

Liam’s story is about a young boy and his school ates who try to persuade him to smoke to fit in with the crowd and the consequences that follow (smoking, peer pressure, fitting in).  The film lasts approximately 15 minutes and can either be watched on its own or as part of the someday series covering other substance misuse topics.  

Type: Online resource, Film

Target group: Second Level

IT/practical requirements: Access to the internet required 

Implications for staff: None

Cost attached: No

Resource link: 

QA Tool: Liam’s Story QA Tool

Smokefree 4 Me

Topic: Tobacco

Description: The Smokefree 4 Me programme is a health education initiative which aims to prevent smoking uptake and encourage young people to make an informed choice to stay smoke free.  The Programme is open to all S1 and S2 classes across Greater Glasgow and Clyde.

Classes can take part in the programme in different ways depending on the interests and needs of the pupils as well as the amount of time available in class to undertake activities.  The programme is split into five themes:

  • Theme 1:  Health Effects of Smoking
  • Theme 2:  Peer Influence and Decision Making
  • Theme 3:  Smoking and the Law
  • Theme 4:  The Tobacco Industry, Advertising and Promotion
  • Theme 5:  Tobacco, Poverty and the Environment

Each theme has an accompanying lesson plan with background information on the topic, suggested ideas for lesson development and a topical newsletter.

Type: Lesson Plans, Online Resource, Pack

Target group: Third

IT/practical requirements: All secondary schools in Greater Glasgow and Clyde have previously received a hard copy of the pack but please follow the link below for the most recent version with up to date statistics. Some lessons may require IT access in class depending on activities chosen.

Implications for staff: No training required but CPD sessions may be available in each local authority area via your local CPD calendar.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link:  NHSGGC: Smokefree 4 Me (click link to register and download the pack) 

QA Tool: Smokefree 4 Me QA Tool

Trade Winds

Topic: Tobacco

Description: Trade Winds: Learning about Tobacco is an interdisciplinary resource for primary schools and is targeted at P5-P7 pupils (second level).  

The pack covers all curriculum areas and is designed to enable children to extend their learning beyond the health impacts of tobacco to a consideration of broader tobacco issues.

 The pack is split into 7 topic areas:

  • Topic A – Setting the Scene
  • Topic B – History of Tobacco
  • Topic C – Health Effects of Smoking
  • Topic D – Secondhand Smoke
  • Topic E – Cost of Tobacco (Global and Local)
  • Topic F – Influences on Smoking (Media and Peer Pressure)
  • Topic G – Extending Children’s Learning Through the Arts

Type: Lesson Plans, Online Resource, Pack

Target group: Second

IT/practical requirements: All primary schools in Greater Glasgow and Clyde have previously received a hard copy of the pack but please follow the link below for the most recent version with up to date statistics. Some lessons may require IT access in class depending on activities chosen.

Implications for staff:  No training required but CPD sessions may be available in each local authority area via your local CPD calendar.

Cost attached: No

Resource link: NHSGGC: Trade winds  (click link to register and download the pack) 

QA  Tool: Trade Winds QA Tool

Tobacco-free Secondary Schools

Topic: Tobacco

Description:

By aspiring to be a smoke-free school, schools can support young people to make confident, responsible, effective decisions about their health and wellbeing. There are many different factors that lead young people to smoke and the extent to which smoking is prominent and accepted in the environment around them plays a crucial part. Consistency between what is experienced in the school environment and reinforcing smoke-free messages in the classroom is key.

The pack includes a range of practical tools and resources and is arranged into 2 parts that can be used independently or together:

Part 1 – Guide to becoming a Tobacco-free School

This guide document is intended to support a school through the steps required in order to become a tobacco free school. It explains the background, why it is important and key issues.   This guide replaces the previous “Tobacco-free Schools – Helping You Achieve It” guide by Smokefree Services and Ash Scotland.

The guide breaks down the process into 10 steps – and these are laid out in a very practical way that is easy to follow. There is a suite of templates available to guide the schools through the process – these can be found in Appendix 1 and are fully editable Microsoft Word documents. 

Part 2 – Tobacco-free Schools Teaching Pack

Secondary pack aligned to Curriculum for Excellence 3rd and 4th level (S1-S3) although reference is also made in the pack to the importance of continuing activity through Senior Phase, for which this material would be suitable.

There are 23 different activities over 10 topic areas.   It is not necessary for all activities or topics to be used – teachers are free to “pick and mix”.

Topics covered include:

  • introducing tobacco
  • benefits of being smokefree
  • smoking and health
  • dealing with peer pressure and building confidence
  • e-cigarettes and vaping
  • smoking and mental health
  • smoking and physical activity
  • money money money
  • towards a Smokefree Scotland
  • cigarettes, plastic and the environment

Type: Lesson Plan(s), Online Resource

Target group: Third, Fourth, Senior phase

IT/practical requirements:

Quit Your Way Smokefree Schools have 1 printed copy of the resource for every secondary school in Greater Glasgow & Clyde.  To request your free copy please email: Quityourway.smokefreeschools@ggc.scot.nhs.uk

The pack is also available online:

  1. Visit https://www.ashscotlandmoodle.org.uk/
  2. Select the ‘tobacco-free secondary schools’ course
  3. Create a new account to get started.

If there are any issues accessing the electronic version please contact eLearning@ashscotland.org.uk

Implications for staff: none

Cost attached: none

Resource link: Tobacco-free Secondary Schools

QA Tool: Tobacco-free Secondary Schools QA Tool

As it is

Topic: Alcohol; Drugs.

Description: The AS IT IS DVD is a resource that tackles the issues of gang fighting, territorialism, offending behaviour and substance misuse. The DVD was produced by a partnership of statutory and voluntary agencies based in Glasgow. Accompanying pack was developed by Glasgow Council on Alcohol.  DVD includes interviews with real people and graphic imagery which some people may find disturbing. The resource challenges entrenched thinking by showing how choices made by gang members have impacted in their own and other people’s lives.  Police Scotland advise that the resource is an early intervention toolkit and can be used with P7, S1 & S2 pupils.  This resource will generate discussion and provoke different thinking with all age groups.  It is recommended that parental consent should be obtained if this resource is to be used with persons under the age of 16. It is strongly recommended that staff view the films and teaching aids prior to use.  If additional hard copies are required please contact Inspector Stevie Kinvig, Police Scotland.

Type: Pack.

Target group: Second; Third; Fourth.

IT/practical requirements: Access to DVD Player/PC & Projector to allow DVD to be played.

Implications for staff: The nature of this resource means that staff should review prior to use, young people may have experienced gang fighting & consequences & as a result may require support during and after use of the resource. DVD contains graphic scenes of violence.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link: TBC

QA Tool:

Buzzin

Topic: Drugs.

Description:  Buzzin explores the impact of solvent abuse on the lives of young people living in the fictional town of Duncastle through the use of  a DVD and lesson plans. The resource aims to raise awareness of dangers and effects of volatile substance abuse.

Type: Online resource.

Target group: Third. 

IT/practical requirements: Internet required to download pack and film.

Implications for staff: Pack has a teachers guide included.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link:  http://www.re-solv.org/education-prevention/

QA Tool: Buzzin QA Tool

Drugs Awareness

Topic: Alcohol; Drugs.

Description:  Drug Awareness is an interactive intervention to introduce the risks and effects of legal and illegal drugs with an alcohol and drugs harm reduction focus. The aim is to raise knowledge and awareness of different legal and illegal drugs and highlight the physical, social and emotional effects of drug use/misuse at a secondary school level and ensure pupils have an understanding of the negative consequences of taking drugs. This intervention uses methods that are interactive, current, and engaging for the young people enabling them to discover information and guidance on drugs.

Type: Lesson plan.

Target group: Third.

IT/practical requirements: List of resources required indicated in facilitator’s notes.

Implications for staff: This resource is normally delivered by GCA in schools.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link: Drugs Awareness (zip)   email@glasgowcouncilonalcohol.org

QA Tool:

Choices For Life: Choices (NPS)

The Choices resource was produced prior to the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act and shows a young person buying NPS from a shop.  This, however, may be a useful discussion point to demystify any beliefs still held that you can legally purchase NPS from a shop or on-line. This does not detract from the wider learning in the film in relation to risky behaviours and substance misuse in general.

Topic: Drugs (New Psychoactive Substances)

Description: The film focuses on Ben as he is faced with a variety of choices around the topic of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). This is an interactive video drama where learners get to make the choices for Ben and see the consequences. There are a variety of choices that can be selected.  

Type: Online resource, Lesson Plan, Film

Target group: Fourth level, Senior Phase

IT/practical requirements: Access to the internet required 

Implications for staff: None

Cost attached: None

Resource link: 

QA Tool: Choices QA Tool

Substance Misuse Primary Education Lesson Plans

Topic: Alcohol Drugs & Tobacco.

Description: The Substance Misuse Education Working Group have created new lesson plans (Early, First and Second Level) which are based on the Substance Misuse Education Resource Pack developed by Educational Services and NHS staff from West Dunbartonshire. A range of activities are provided which include interactive quizzes, paired working and individual learning. Some lesson plans have follow-up activities to further develop children’s learning on the topic. Home activity exercises have been included in some lessons to reinforce learning and promote discussion between parents/carers and their children. Additional lessons will continue to be developed by the Substance Misuse Education Working group in order to create a framework for substance misuse education.

 Early levelP1 lesson 1 – People who help meP1 lesson 2 – Unsafe situations and emergenciesFirst levelP2 lesson 2 – Decision makingP3 lesson 2 – RisksP3 lesson 3 – Decisions, Decisions!P4 lesson 1 – ConsequencesP4 lesson 2 – Peer pressureP4 lesson 3 – MedicinesP4 lesson 4 – What to do in an emergencySecond levelP5 lesson 1 – What are substances part 1: alcohol and tobaccoP5 lesson 2 – What are substances part 2: drugs and solventsP5 lesson 3 – Consequences – Risks and effectsP5 lesson 4 – Doing the right thingP6 lesson 1 – What are drugs part 1: legal drugsP6 lesson 2 – What are drugs part 2: illegal drugsP6 lesson 3 – RisksP7 lesson 1 – Consequences: drugs and the lawP7 lesson 2 – ResponsibilitiesP7 lesson 3 – Antisocial behaviour and substance misuse

Type: Lesson plans, online resource

Target group: Early; First; Second. 

IT/practical requirements: Access to PC and internet required for some lessons.

Implications for staff: None.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link: Substance Misuse Primary Education Lesson Plans (zip files)

QA Tool: Primary Education Lesson Plans QA Tool

Substance Misuse PSE Curriculum Pack

Topic: Substance Misuse: drugs (including NPS), alcohol and tobacco

Description: 

Provides teachers with suggested lessons and resources to support delivery of substance misuse lessons as part of the PSE curriculum in Secondary Schools.  Learners will develop their understanding of the use and misuse of a variety of substances including over the counter and prescribed medicines, alcohol, drugs, tobacco, solvents and new psycho active substances.  They will explore and develop their understanding of the impact of risk taking behaviour on their life choices.  Learners are enabled to make informed personal choices with the aim of promoting healthy lifestyles.

S1 Module

  • Lesson 1 – What is a drug
  • Lesson 2 – Sophie’s Story (Alcohol)
  • Lesson 3 – Peer Pressure
  • Lesson 4 – Understanding the school’s policy on drugs

S2 Module

  • Lesson 1 – Drug names and effects
  • Lesson 2 – Drugs and the law
  • Lesson 3 – So what do you think you know about alcohol?
  • Lesson 4 – Why do people use drugs?

S3 Module

  • Lesson 1 – What’s in a unit?
  • Lesson 2 – Helping other people
  • Lesson 3 – Smoking: attitudes, myths and facts
  • Lesson 4 – Choices (NPS)

S4 Module

  • Lesson 1 – Cannabis: the facts
  • Lesson 2 – Risky situations
  • Lesson 3 – Keeping safe – emergency action
  • Lesson 4 – Social implications of substance misuse

S5 Module

  • Lesson 1 – Alcohol and advertising
  • Lesson 2 – Trouble in town
  • Lesson 3 – Alcohol & Drugs, what do you think?
  • Lesson 4 – Scott’s Story (cannabis)

Type: Lesson Plan(s), Online Resource, Film

Target group: Third; Fourth; Senior phase.

IT/practical requirements: None

Implications for staff: None

Resource link: Substance Misuse PSE Curriculum Pack (zip files)

Cost attached: No

QA Tool: PSE Curriculum Pack QA Tool

Alternative resource links (no zip files):

Sun, sea and safety

Topic: Alcohol; Drugs

Description:  *Resource linked to Fourth Level E’s and O’s, however use is recommended with Senior Phase students* Sun, Sea and Safety is an interactive intervention to increase knowledge of the impact of alcohol on safety whilst abroad taking a harm reduction focus. The aim is to reduce the negative impact of alcohol use/ misuse while abroad and raise awareness of different risky situations and consequences. This intervention uses methods that are interactive, current, age appropriate and engaging for the young people enabling them to discover information and guidance on alcohol.

Type: Lesson plan.

Target group: Senior phase.

IT/practical requirements: List of resources required indicated in facilitator’s notes.

Implications for staff: This resource is normally delivered by GCA in schools.

Resource download link: Sun Sea Safety (zip)   http://www.glasgowcouncilonalcohol.org/contact/

Cost attached: No.

QA Tool: 

Take a Drink

Topic: Alcohol; Drugs

Description: Drama performed by PACE Theatre Company highlighting the dangers of risk taking behaviour to young people, for example, the consequences/situations facing young people under the influence of alcohol and or drugs. The drama follows three characters who attend a party and all have very different experiences due to their excessive alcohol consumption. Follow up workshops are delivered by Glasgow Council on Alcohol to allow discussion about issues raised in the play.  This play is commissioned by NHS GG&C for all Glasgow Secondary Schools at present.  If you are interested in running a similiar project outwith the Glasgow area please contact PACE Theatre Company directly.  Take A Drink 2012 Evaluation Report available on request.

Type: Performance/Drama

Target group: Third; Fourth; Senior phase. 

IT/practical requirements:  Stage area required or large hall depending on audience size. Drama company provide all required equipment including sound equipment.

Implications for staff:  None.

Resource link: http://www.pacetheatre.com

Cost attached: No.

QA Tool:

The Drugs Wheel

Topic: Drugs

Description:  Drugs wheel resource contains up to date names and categories for illegal drugs, new psychoactive substances (drugs formally known as legal highs), solvents and prescription drugs used recreationally.  Can be used to raise awareness during class discussion and the Drugs Wheel game supports young people to work as a group to categorise the drugs.  Could complement a lesson on the effects of drugs. 

Type: Online resource.

Target group: Third; Fourth; Senior phase

IT/practical requirements:  All resources are available for download via the website.  Powerpoint version also available for use on Smart Board.

Implications for staff: None.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link: The Drugs Wheel

QA Tool: QA Tool Drugs – The Drugs Wheel

Young Booze Busters Website

Topic: Alcohol; Drugs; Tobacco.

Description:  Interactive, incentive based information on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.  This online resource contains information for young people and parents/carers as well as video clips, games, competitions and a link to Becky Booze Buster. Provides information on alcohol.  Additonal information on drugs and tobacco has recently been added.

Type: Online interactive resource.

Target group: Third; Fourth.

IT/practical requirements:  Computer with internet access.  You Tube access required to watch videos.  Link to Becky Booze Busters is via Facebook or email.

Implications for staff: None.

Cost attached: No.

Resource link: http://www.geaap.com/     Young Booze Busters

QA Tool: 

Choices For Life Film: Scott’s Story (Drugs-Cannabis)

Topic: Drugs (Cannabis)

Description:  Together with PACE Theatre, Choices for Life have produced a series of dramas “Someday” which are all interlinked. They tell the story of Liam, Sophie and Scott are they experience peer pressure, smoking, drugs and alcohol for the first time and must face the consequences that lead from it. 

Scott’s story is about a young adult who decides to use cannabis to help him cope with stress. The film shows how this choice impacts his life. Explores many of the consequences of cannabis: its effects on relationships, motivation, school work, reliability and drug driving.  The film lasts approximately 15 minutes and can either be watched on its own or as part of the Someday series covering related themes. 

Type: Online resource, Film

Target group: Third Level, Fourth Level, Senior Phase

IT/practical requirements: Access to the internet required 

Implications for staff: None

Cost attached: None

Resource link: 

QA Tool: Scott’s Story QA Tool

Substance Misuse Toolkit Working Group

For information or advice regarding the content of this toolkit, quality assurance process or amendments to resources please contact the SMT working group at: 

substancemisuse.toolkit@ggc.scot.nhs.uk     

Education Establishments

Advice and Support 

If you are concerned that a young person requires support with alcohol or substance issues, please follow your organisation’s own policies and procedures and discuss with senior management.

There may be additional local support services available within your area. Please contact substance misuse working group for more information if you are unaware of these.

substancemisuse.toolkit@ggc.scot.nhs.uk     

Youth Organisations

Advice and Support

If you are concerned that a young person requires support with alcohol or substance issues, you should direct them towards an appropriate service.

It is better to contact services now to clarify their referral criteria and procedures, rather than waiting until a young person urgently needs their help!

The Greater Glasgow and Clyde Substance Misuse Education Working Group consists of NHS and Education staff who have worked together to create the ‘Substance Misuse Toolkit’. This online resource contains quality assured substance misuse education resources to support staff working with young people in both education and community settings. Resources include lesson plans, resource packs and relevant websites.

The Substance Misuse Toolkit aims to reduce harm caused by substance misuse by:

  • Equipping staff with the knowledge and confidence they require to teach pupils about the effects, risks and consequences of substance use by providing them with a range of materials and methodologies.
  • Encouraging learners to make informed choices about alcohol, drugs and tobacco.
  • Supporting an age appropriate and inclusive approach to education in relation to substances within the context of a Curriculum for Excellence.
  • Identifying evidence based resources and approaches and share good practice with staff across the Greater Glasgow and Clyde area.
  • Ensuring that resources are up to date and fit for purpose.
  • Ensuring ongoing quality assurance processes are in place to monitor and further develop the site.

Quality Assurance

The Greater Glasgow and Clyde Substance Misuse Education Working Group meets regularly to ensure that resources included within the Substance Misuse Toolkit are evidence based, up to date and of a high standard. The group consults with key stakeholders regarding the accessibility, content, usefulness and areas for improvement.

The Greater Glasgow and Clyde Substance Misuse Education Working Group has developed a quality assurance tool to assess the content of resources against agreed indicators. The tool is consistent with the principles and values of local and national policy including Curriculum for Excellence, GIRFEC and the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model. Resources which meet the standards set by this review process are then incorporated into the Substance Misuse Toolkit.

The Quality Assurance Tool Template can be accessed here.

Policy Context

The need to support children and young people to make positive choices about alcohol, drugs and tobacco has been highlighted by a number of national and local policy documents. Substance Misuse Education is a priority within the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention & Education Model and is a Health & Wellbeing organiser within Curriculum for Excellence. Getting it Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) ensures that wellbeing is central to all of our work in meeting children and young people’s needs.

Further information on the policy context can be found here.

Alcohol and Drugs

Blood Born Viruses

Blood Born Viruses

Mental Health

NHS Heads Up For Good Mental Health

NHS Health Improvement Child and Youth Mental Health

Others

NHS Public Health Scotland

NHS Inform

NHS Public Health Resource Unit

Funding Sources

Homelessness

Criminal / Community Justice

Alcohol

Drugs

Data Sources

About the Joint NHSGGC Training Programme

About the Joint NHSGGC Training Programme

Work force development through on-going training and support is an essential part of our work. We recognise that it is one of the best ways that we can work with practitioners and organisations to support them in effectively delivering services that meets the needs of people experiencing alcohol and drug issues and alcohol and drug related harm.

Our commitment to you is to provide training which:
  • Is evidence based and of a consistent standard and quality.
  • Is firmly rooted in the experience and aspirations of organisations working in the alcohol and drug field.
  • Promotes good practice and works to improve and develop services for people experiencing alcohol and drug issues and alcohol and drug related harm.
  • Is participative and places a strong emphasis on practical skills development.
  • Creates an environment for practitioners to meet, share good practice and forge the links for effective joint working.

The trainers involved in the courses are skilled in delivering training and have professional experience and comprehensive knowledge of the topic area in which they are training.

The courses advertised are free of charge and are open to all practitioners and organisations working within alcohol and drug field and related fields.
 
Please note that although the courses are free of charge, the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Health Improvement Team, Alcohol Drug Partnerships and local organisations pay for the full expenditure for all training events. It is essential therefore that no-shows and cancellations are kept to a minimum.

We trust you will find the training courses in this brochure relevant to your work, and that you take this opportunity to continue your professional development through training.

Please note we are not responsible for external website content.

Training Opportunities

Below is a list of the training courses currently available. Please contact us if you would like to add or promote any new courses.

Alcohol

Alcohol Awareness Full Day

Organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum (SDF)

Course Name

Alcohol Awareness

Aim of the course

This full day course aims to increase knowledge and awareness of key issues relating to alcohol use in Scotland.

Description of Training course

By end of session participants will be able to:

  • Discuss the prevalence of alcohol use in Scotland,
  • Recall the unit content for common drinks, and low risk drinking guidelines
  • Identify a range of reasons why people use alcohol, the effects and associated costs
  • Describe the different patterns of alcohol use
  • Develop an ability to identify the signs and symptoms of alcohol misuse
  • Understand the different approaches and support in reducing the harm
  • Be aware of the key resources and support services available

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, published on www.sdftraining.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Tier 1 and 2 staff

Trainers / organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum

Adelle Still : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

Adelle joined Scottish Drugs Forum in January 2018 as a member of the Workforce Development team. Adelle’s role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Adelle worked as an Addictions Education and Prevention Specialist within NHS Ayrshire and Arran for 13 years. Her role consisted of coordinating, developing, implementing and evaluating education and prevention activities in line with national and local strategies. Adelle was involved in development of an educational resource aimed at S1 to S6 and the development of the Ayrshire training calendar. Prior to this Adelle worked within Primary care.

Graham Mackintosh : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

As a member of the workforce development team Graham’s current role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Graham has developed training on a range of drug related areas including BBVs, Overdose Awareness and Prevention, and Naloxone with Scottish Drugs Forum and Hepatitis Scotland, and has been delivering training to key service providers across Scotland since 2004. Prior to this Graham worked in frontline drug services in Glasgow from 1994 to 2004.

Katy MacLeod : National Training and Development Officer.

Katy MacLeod is a National Training and Development Officer for the Scottish Drugs Forum where she delivers training on a variety of drug-related and intervention based topics. Since 2009, she has specialised in emerging drug trends and in 2016 completed a research study for the Scottish Government in conjunction with Glasgow University looking at patterns of use, motivations and consequences of New Psychoactive Substances in Scotland. The study explored trends within vulnerable groups in Scotland and with men that have sex with men especially in relation to chemsex. Katy has worked in front line services for over 10 years in residential and community based settings. This work has included coordinating welfare services at festivals and events throughout UK and Europe in her role as Director at Chill Welfare. She is a member of the advisory board for the Global Drug Survey and the Scottish board of Phoenix Futures. Katy trained initially in counselling and health and social care before going on to undertake the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) certificate in Training Practice. Katy’s areas of interest include emerging drug trends, harm reduction, safer nightlife, mental health and trauma.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full

Time

9.30am until 4.30pm

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

www.sdftraining.org.uk

Graham@sdf.org.uk

Adelles@sdf.org.uk

Katy@sdf.org.uk

Call: 0141 221 1175

Venue

Varies, see website www.sdftraining.org.uk

Alcohol Awareness Half Day

Alcohol A

Organisation              

Scottish Drugs Forum (SDF)

Course Name              

Alcohol Awareness (half day)

Aim of the course       

This introductory half-day training course aims to increase knowledge and awareness of key issues relating to alcohol use in Scotland.

Description of Training course

By end of session participants will be able to:

  • Recall prevalence of alcohol use in Scotland, the unit content for common drinks, and low risk drinking guidelines
  • Identify a range of reasons why people use alcohol, the effects and associated costs
  • Describe the different patterns of alcohol use
  • Understand the different approaches and support in reducing the harm including being able to list key resources and support services

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, published on www.sdftraining.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Tier 1 and 2 staff

Trainers / organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum

Adelle Still : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

Adelle joined Scottish Drugs Forum in January 2018 as a member of the Workforce Development team. Adelle’s role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Adelle worked as an Addictions Education and Prevention Specialist within NHS Ayrshire and Arran for 13 years. Her role consisted of coordinating, developing, implementing and evaluating education and prevention activities in line with national and local strategies. Adelle was involved in development of an educational resource aimed at S1 to S6 and the development of the Ayrshire training calendar. Prior to this Adelle worked within Primary care.

Graham Mackintosh : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

As a member of the workforce development team Graham’s current role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Graham has developed training on a range of drug related areas including BBVs, Overdose Awareness and Prevention, and Naloxone with Scottish Drugs Forum and Hepatitis Scotland, and has been delivering training to key service providers across Scotland since 2004. Prior to this Graham worked in frontline drug services in Glasgow from 1994 to 2004.

Katy MacLeod : National Training and Development Officer.

Katy MacLeod is a National Training and Development Officer for the Scottish Drugs Forum where she delivers training on a variety of drug-related and intervention based topics. Since 2009, she has specialised in emerging drug trends and in 2016 completed a research study for the Scottish Government in conjunction with Glasgow University looking at patterns of use, motivations and consequences of New Psychoactive Substances in Scotland. The study explored trends within vulnerable groups in Scotland and with men that have sex with men especially in relation to chemsex. Katy has worked in front line services for over 10 years in residential and community based settings. This work has included coordinating welfare services at festivals and events throughout UK and Europe in her role as Director at Chill Welfare. She is a member of the advisory board for the Global Drug Survey and the Scottish board of Phoenix Futures. Katy trained initially in counselling and health and social care before going on to undertake the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) certificate in Training Practice. Katy’s areas of interest include emerging drug trends, harm reduction, safer nightlife, mental health and trauma.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full

Time

09:30 or 13:30 course

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

www.sdftraining.org.uk

Graham@sdf.org.uk

Adelles@sdf.org.uk

Katy@sdf.org.uk

Call 0141 221 1175

Venue

Varies, see website www.sdftraining.org.uk

Oh Lila

Organisation

Alcohol Focus Scotland

Course Name

Oh Lila – a learning resource for pre – school aged children

Aim of the course

The course explores the key themes of the Oh Lila resource and how it relates to building resilience in children. Oh Lila is linked to the curriculum for excellence with a particular focus on Health & Wellbeing.

On completing training learners will:

  • Have enhanced awareness and understanding of the problems caused by alcohol in Scotland
  • Be more aware of early years policies and strategies
  • Be able to identify ways to confidently use Oh Lila
  • Be more confident in managing disclosures

Description of Training course

Oh Lila is a flexible resource which aims to build resilience and protective factors in young children, helping them to explore their emotions, develop social skills and identify trusted adults. The 4 hr workshop provides learners with an interactive and engaging experience.

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, available from training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Target group – Nursery workers and practitioners working with children of pre-school age (3-5yrs) to help them to identify trusted adults and understand that asking for help is a positive behaviour.  

Min/max participants – Min 6 and max of 18

Trainers / organisation

Alcohol Focus Scotland is the national charity working to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harm.

We want to reduce the impact of alcohol on individuals, families, communities and Scotland as a whole.

We want to see fewer people have their health damaged or lives cut short due to alcohol, fewer children and families suffering as a result of other people’s drinking, and communities free from alcohol-related crime and violence.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full

Time

Training is delivered over 4 hours – usually 9am-1pm or 1pm-5pm.

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

https://www.alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

Call 0141 572 6700

Venue

Varies, contact provider training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

Rory

Organisation

Alcohol Focus Scotland

Course Name

Rory – using the Rory resource in Schools

Aim of the course

Aim 

  • Learners will enhance their awareness and understanding of the problems caused by alcohol in Scotland;
  • have a greater awareness of the impact of harmful parental drinking on children and families;
  • more confidence to respond to children who are or may be affected by parental drinking.

Description of Training course

The training explores the Rory storybook and resource pack, which aims to build resilience and protective factors in children.  The pack comes with a range of age appropriate lesson plans and activities which focus on exploring relationships, development of problem solving and communication skills. 

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, available from training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk 

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Primary school staff (P1-7) who would like to learn more about Rory and how it can be used with children aged five to eleven years, building resilience and increasing social & emotional wellbeing.  

Trainers / organisation

Alcohol Focus Scotland is the national charity working to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harm.

We want to reduce the impact of alcohol on individuals, families, communities and Scotland as a whole.

We want to see fewer people have their health damaged or lives cut short due to alcohol, fewer children and families suffering as a result of other people’s drinking, and communities free from alcohol-related crime and violence. 

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full 

Time

This is a 4hr course delivered over 2 x 2hr sessions, usually 4pm-6pm.

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

https://www.alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk 

Call 0141 572 6700

Venue

Varies, contact provider training@alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk

Drugs

Drug Awareness Full Day

Organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum (SDF)

Course Name

Drugs Awareness

Aim of the course

This training course aims to increase workers’ knowledge and awareness of key issues relating to drug use in Scotland.

Description of Training course

By end of session participants will be able to:

  • Discuss how attitudes and stigma can affect recovery
  • Identify why people use substances
  • Name the 7 key drug categories and their key effects
  • Recall current drug trends and patterns of use
  • Discuss effective strategies and treatment options to support people who use drugs, including harm reduction

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, published on www.sdftraining.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Tier 1 and 2 staff

Trainers / organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum

Adelle Still : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

Adelle joined Scottish Drugs Forum in January 2018 as a member of the Workforce Development team. Adelle’s role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Adelle worked as an Addictions Education and Prevention Specialist within NHS Ayrshire and Arran for 13 years. Her role consisted of coordinating, developing, implementing and evaluating education and prevention activities in line with national and local strategies. Adelle was involved in development of an educational resource aimed at S1 to S6 and the development of the Ayrshire training calendar. Prior to this Adelle worked within Primary care.

Graham Mackintosh : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

As a member of the workforce development team Graham’s current role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Graham has developed training on a range of drug related areas including BBVs, Overdose Awareness and Prevention, and Naloxone with Scottish Drugs Forum and Hepatitis Scotland, and has been delivering training to key service providers across Scotland since 2004. Prior to this Graham worked in frontline drug services in Glasgow from 1994 to 2004.

Katy MacLeod : National Training and Development Officer.

Katy MacLeod is a National Training and Development Officer for the Scottish Drugs Forum where she delivers training on a variety of drug-related and intervention based topics. Since 2009, she has specialised in emerging drug trends and in 2016 completed a research study for the Scottish Government in conjunction with Glasgow University looking at patterns of use, motivations and consequences of New Psychoactive Substances in Scotland. The study explored trends within vulnerable groups in Scotland and with men that have sex with men especially in relation to chemsex. Katy has worked in front line services for over 10 years in residential and community based settings. This work has included coordinating welfare services at festivals and events throughout UK and Europe in her role as Director at Chill Welfare. She is a member of the advisory board for the Global Drug Survey and the Scottish board of Phoenix Futures. Katy trained initially in counselling and health and social care before going on to undertake the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) certificate in Training Practice. Katy’s areas of interest include emerging drug trends, harm reduction, safer nightlife, mental health and trauma.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full

Time

09:30 – 16:30

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

www.sdftraining.org.uk

Graham@sdf.org.uk

Adelles@sdf.org.uk

Katy@sdf.org.uk

Call 0141 221 1175

Venue

Varies, see website www.sdftraining.org.uk

Drug Awareness Half Day

Organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum (SDF)

Course Name

Drugs Awareness (half day)

Aim of the course

This introductory half day training course aims to increase workers’ knowledge and awareness of key issues relating to drug use in Scotland.

Description of Training course

By end of session participants will be able to:

  • Discuss how attitudes and stigma can affect recovery.
  • Identify why people use substances
  • Name the 7 key drug categories and their key effects
  • Recall current drug trends and patterns of use
  • Discuss effective strategies and treatment options to support people who use drugs, including harm reduction

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, published on www.sdftraining.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Tier 1 and 2 staff

Trainers / organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum

Adelle Still : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

Adelle joined Scottish Drugs Forum in January 2018 as a member of the Workforce Development team. Adelle’s role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Adelle worked as an Addictions Education and Prevention Specialist within NHS Ayrshire and Arran for 13 years. Her role consisted of coordinating, developing, implementing and evaluating education and prevention activities in line with national and local strategies. Adelle was involved in development of an educational resource aimed at S1 to S6 and the development of the Ayrshire training calendar. Prior to this Adelle worked within Primary care.

Graham Mackintosh : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

As a member of the workforce development team Graham’s current role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Graham has developed training on a range of drug related areas including BBVs, Overdose Awareness and Prevention, and Naloxone with Scottish Drugs Forum and Hepatitis Scotland, and has been delivering training to key service providers across Scotland since 2004. Prior to this Graham worked in frontline drug services in Glasgow from 1994 to 2004.

Katy MacLeod : National Training and Development Officer.

Katy MacLeod is a National Training and Development Officer for the Scottish Drugs Forum where she delivers training on a variety of drug-related and intervention based topics. Since 2009, she has specialised in emerging drug trends and in 2016 completed a research study for the Scottish Government in conjunction with Glasgow University looking at patterns of use, motivations and consequences of New Psychoactive Substances in Scotland. The study explored trends within vulnerable groups in Scotland and with men that have sex with men especially in relation to chemsex. Katy has worked in front line services for over 10 years in residential and community based settings. This work has included coordinating welfare services at festivals and events throughout UK and Europe in her role as Director at Chill Welfare. She is a member of the advisory board for the Global Drug Survey and the Scottish board of Phoenix Futures. Katy trained initially in counselling and health and social care before going on to undertake the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) certificate in Training Practice. Katy’s areas of interest include emerging drug trends, harm reduction, safer nightlife, mental health and trauma.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

Until course is full

Time

09:30 or 13:30 course

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

www.sdftraining.org.uk

Graham@sdf.org.uk

Adelles@sdf.org.uk

Katy@sdf.org.uk

Call 0141 221 1175

Venue

Varies, see website www.sdftraining.org.uk

ABI

GCA ABI

Organisation

Glasgow Council on Alcohol

Course Name

ABI Skills Development

Aim of the course

The course aims to provide practitioners with the required knowledge, skills and confidence to competently and appropriately respond to alcohol-related issues with their patients/clients within the context of delivering an evidence based brief intervention on alcohol.

By the end of the course participants will have covered following modules:

  • Introduction to Alcohol and Brief Interventions
  • Values & Attitudes to Alcohol
  • How Much is Too Much? Units & Drinking Limits
  • Introduction to BI Theory
  • Challenges & Solutions
  • Ways In
  • Screening & Feedback
  • Choosing a BI strategy
  • Bringing it all together

Description of Training course

Provides practitioner with skills to use and evidence based technique to discuss alcohol use with their clients

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Contact us for next available dates

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Suitable for staff and volunteers who have some limited level of alcohol understanding and/or motivational interviewing skills.

Trainers / organisation

Glasgow Council on Alcohol

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

2 weeks before the course start date (Please check for spaces for any late nominations)

Time

10:00-16:30

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

abi@glasgowcouncilonalcohol.org

Venue

Currently delivered via MS Teams or Zoom

GCA ABI T4T

Organisation

Glasgow Council on Alcohol

Course Name

ABI Training for Trainers

Aim of the course

The course aims to prepare trainers to deliver ABI practioner courses to a variety of staff working in different settings to raise awareness of alcohol related harm and the use of alcohol brief interventions.

By the end of the course participants will have covered and be able to deliver the following modules:

  • Welcome & Introductions / Ground-rules / Warm Up
  • Introduction to Alcohol and Brief Interventions, Values & Attitudes to Alcohol (40mins)
  • How Much is Too Much ? Units & Drinking Limits
  • Introduction to BI Theory
  • Challenges & Solutions
  • Ways In
  • Screening & Feedback
  • Choosing a BI approach
  • Explore Attitudes & Harm Reduction and Discuss Options for Change
  • Discuss Effects of Behaviour, Benefits of Change & Build Motivation
  • Build Confidence, Skills and Coping Strategies
  • Bringing it all together
  • Referral & Resources
  • Data Monitoring & Evaluation

Description of Training course

Provides trainers with a set of evidence and competency based materials and instructions for the delivery of training and learning activities on alcohol-related harm and brief interventions.

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

This is a 2 day course. Contact us for next available dates

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Staff working un the community who are experienced trainers or facilitators with a remit to discuss lifestyle factors with clients/service users

Trainers / organisation

Glasgow Council on Alcohol

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course start date)

2 weeks before the course start date (Please check for spaces for any late nominations)

Time

Course runs over 2 days. Each day runs from 09:30-16:30. Training days are separated by 1 week usually.

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

Please fill in ABI T4T Application Form and send to abi@glasgowcouncilonalcohol.org

Venue

Currently delivered via MS Teams or Zoom

Multiple Risk

Multiple Risk Full Day

Organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum (SDF)

Course Name

Multiple Risk

Aim of the course

This training course will enable staff to further build knowledge, confidence and skills in delivering multiple risk prevention and education support to young people

Description of Training course

By end of session participants will be able to:

  • Identify common risk behaviours displayed by young people.
  • Define multiple risk.
  • Discuss positive and negative aspects of risk.
  • Identify common risk behaviours.
  • Recall the factors and Adverse Childhood Experiences that influence risk taking and identify the impact of these on resilience.
  • Demonstrate effective signposting and interventions which tackle multiple risk. build resilience and support post-traumatic growth.

Dates of training (Day, date, year)

Throughout year, published on www.sdftraining.org.uk

Participants (who should apply? Criteria?)

Tier 1 and 2 staff

Trainers / organisation

Scottish Drugs Forum

Adelle Still : Senior Training Officer, Workforce Development.

Adelle joined Scottish Drugs Forum in January 2018 as a member of the Workforce Development team. Adelle’s role focuses mainly on the development and delivery of alcohol and drug awareness training within Glasgow City. Adelle worked as an Addictions Education and Prevention Specialist within NHS Ayrshire and Arran for 13 years. Her role consisted of coordinating, developing, implementing and evaluating education and prevention activities in line with national and local strategies. Adelle was involved in development of an educational resource aimed at S1 to S6 and the development of the Ayrshire training calendar. Prior to this Adelle worked within Primary care.

Katy MacLeod : National Training and Development Officer.

Katy MacLeod is a National Training and Development Officer for the Scottish Drugs Forum where she delivers training on a variety of drug-related and intervention based topics. Since 2009, she has specialised in emerging drug trends and in 2016 completed a research study for the Scottish Government in conjunction with Glasgow University looking at patterns of use, motivations and consequences of New Psychoactive Substances in Scotland. The study explored trends within vulnerable groups in Scotland and with men that have sex with men especially in relation to chemsex. Katy has worked in front line services for over 10 years in residential and community based settings. This work has included coordinating welfare services at festivals and events throughout UK and Europe in her role as Director at Chill Welfare. She is a member of the advisory board for the Global Drug Survey and the Scottish board of Phoenix Futures. Katy trained initially in counselling and health and social care before going on to undertake the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) certificate in Training Practice. Katy’s areas of interest include emerging drug trends, harm reduction, safer nightlife, mental health and trauma.

Closing date to apply to attend (for example – 2 weeks before the course)

Until course is full

Time

09:30 – 16:30

Contacts / booking details / website etc.

www.sdftraining.org.uk

Adelles@sdf.org.uk

Katy@sdf.org.uk

Call 0141 221 1175

Venue

Varies, see website www.sdftraining.org.uk

BBV

Prevention & Education

What is Alcohol and Drug Prevention & Education?

A working definition for Prevention and Education is defined as

‘being largely concerned with encouraging and developing ways to support and empower individuals, families and communities in the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills with which to avoid or reduce the development of alcohol problems, drug misuse and alcohol and drug related harm.’

Aims of the NHSGGC Alcohol and Drugs Prevention and Education Model

It was hoped that the Prevention and Education Model would create an overarching commissioning framework for alcohol and drug prevention and education provision across the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde area that gives clear guidance on what constitutes good practice. This would then inform the future planning and delivery of alcohol and drug prevention and education work, in turn, providing the opportunity for partners to facilitate a move towards developing prevention and education structures fit for purpose that can address issues around equity of provision, cost effectiveness and accountability.

Since the ratification and distribution of the model in 2008, there has been growing evidence of dedicated central and local structures and services with a focus on prevention and education being developed and then maintained. There has also been positive reporting of a flurry of co-ordinated activity that directly links to the 12 core elements in the model being delivered in the alcohol and drug prevention and education field through outcome focused action plans and budgets co-ordinated by these dedicated prevention and education structures.

The five key aims of the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education (2012) Model is

  1. To continue to promote consistent practice and standards, in relation to prevention and education practice across all CH(C)P’s in Greater Glasgow and Clyde.
  2. To encourage prevention and education practitioners to agree on, and then take ownership of a baseline definition for prevention and education that will then inform universal working in the field.
  3. To raise the profile of prevention and education as a range of interventions worthwhile investing in at a local and area wide level by strengthening planning and partnership working across all Tiers and Core Elements.
  4. To raise awareness of the updated NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model which includes a working definition for prevention and education, prevention and education tiered model, 12 evidenced based core elements and support functions.
  5. To create a more strategic, outcome-focused, co-ordinated, cohesive, sustainable and planned approach to best practice. This will focus on the longer term structural development for prevention and education built on evidenced based approaches and a performance management framework.

The Prevention and Education Model is not meant as a definitive prescriptive guide but instead aims to stimulate discussion and debate amongst strategic planners and practitioners of prevention and education approaches. This therefore creates a vehicle of opportunity in which to explore, understand and respond to the capacity, funding difficulties and constraints inherent in translating theories of good practice into workable and achievable objectives. In doing so, this will help identify appropriate ways forward for the future planning and delivery of prevention and education in localities and across the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde wide area.

The NHSGGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model 12 Core Elements 
  1. Resilience and protective factors
  2. Environmental measures
  3. Community involvement
  4. Diversionary approaches
  5. Brief Intervention approaches
  6. Education
  7. Training
  8. Parenting programmes
  9. Social marketing
  10. Workplace alcohol and drug policies
  11. Harm reduction – alcohol
  12. Harm reduction  – drugs
The NHSGGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model Tier Diagram
Introduction

In 2008, the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model was widely distributed following ratification from the then Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol Action Team / Drug Action Team.


The five key aims of the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model are

  1. To continue to promote consistent practice and standards, in relation to prevention and education practice across all CH(C)P’s in Greater Glasgow and Clyde.
  2. To encourage prevention and education practitioners to agree on, and then take ownership of a baseline definition for prevention and education that will then inform universal working in the field.
  3. To raise the profile of prevention and education as a range of interventions worthwhile investing in at a local and area wide level by strengthening planning and partnership working across all Tiers and Core Elements.
  4. To raise awareness of the updated Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model which includes a working definition for prevention and education, prevention and education tiered model, 12 evidenced based core elements and support functions.
  5. To create a more strategic, outcome-focused, co-ordinated, cohesive, sustainable and planned approach to best practice. This will focus on the longer term structural development for prevention and education built on evidenced based approaches and a performance management framework.


It was hoped that the Prevention and Education Model would create an overarching commissioning framework for alcohol and drug prevention and education provision across the Greater Glasgow and Clyde area that gives  clear guidance on what constitutes good practice. This would then inform the future planning and delivery of alcohol and drug prevention and education work, in turn, providing the opportunity for partners to facilitate a move towards developing prevention and education structures fit for purpose that can address issues around equity of provision, cost effectiveness and accountability.


The Prevention and Education Model is not meant as a definitive prescriptive guide but instead aims to stimulate discussion and debate amongst strategic planners and practitioners of prevention and education approaches. This therefore creates a vehicle of opportunity in which to explore, understand and respond to the capacity, funding difficulties and constraints inherent in translating theories of good practice into workable and achievable objectives. In doing so, this will help identify appropriate ways forward for the future planning and delivery of prevention and education in localities and across the Greater Glasgow and Clyde wide area.


Since the ratification and distribution of the model in 2008, there has been growing evidence of dedicated central and local structures and services with a focus on prevention and education being developed and then maintained. There has also been positive reporting of a flurry of co-ordinated activity that directly links to the 12 core elements in the model being delivered in the alcohol and drug prevention and education field through outcome focused action plans and budgets co-ordinated by these dedicated prevention and education structures.


In 2011 a multi-disciplinary reference group was formed to support the review of the existing evidence base and further progress the model. The following document further introduces this review.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Introduction

Resilience and Protective Factors

Adolescence is a period of transition when children are at higher risk for a number of behaviours including substance use. Alcohol use and misuse by adolescents and young adults is a major public health issue. A number of factors have been identified that protect adolescents or, alternatively, put them at risk for alcohol and drug use. These factors are concerned with different personal and environmental factors, e.g. the community, the school setting, family, peer group and individual characteristics.

Protective behavioural strategies (PBS) for drinking are behaviours that individuals engage in to reduce or limit alcohol consumption and related negative consequences, such as alternating alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. An emerging body of literature indicates that individuals who routinely engage in behaviours such as setting limits, pacing drinks, diluting beverages, and taking social precautions (e.g., walking home with friends) are at a lower risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences

The rationale for identifying risk factors for alcohol and drug use among adolescents is to promote effective preventive interventions. These interventions should be aimed at reducing or eliminating risk factors and increasing protective factors. Using a risk and protective factor approach is one way of increasing awareness of the need for preventive efforts targeting adolescents and young adults. It provides public health planners and other key stakeholders with information about which aspects of youth development in young people to target with preventive efforts.

Resilience theory provides another approach to preventing initiation of substance use through improving adolescent mental well-being and resilience. There is much variation in the definition of resilience although, it is generally agreed that both the individual as well as environmental characteristics contribute to an individual’s resilience and are critical for positive youth development and the avoidance of risk behaviours.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Resilience and Protective Factors

Environmental Strategies

educing alcohol-related harm in young people is a major priority across Europe. Perceived availability is commonly associated with adolescent alcohol use. Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among young people such as policies restricting access to alcohol have been shown to reduce underage drinking. Much alcohol use and associated harm in young people occurs in public drinking environments. These environments, including bars, nightclubs and their surrounding areas are associated with high levels of acute alcohol-related harms.


Legislation on alcohol-related harm and disorder typically focuses on environmental preventive measures, such as opening hours regulation, staff training, enforcing the refusal of service to intoxicated patrons, and the replacement of drinking glasses and bottles with plastic alternatives. Such approaches require input and support from stakeholders including police, local authority licensing staff and health professionals.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Environmental Strategies

Community Approaches

Considerable research has demonstrated that substance use during early adolescence can have long-term negative health consequences. As these behaviours cross levels and contexts, community approaches have been suggested as an important component in the prevention of youth health and behaviour problems. Community approaches comprise a range of interventions and activities including community involvement, community engagement and community mobilisation which are aimed at a range of individuals from different age groups and with different characteristics, thus applying a whole population approach.


Brazg et al (2011) maintained that the successful development and implementation of prevention curricula requires seeking strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community members. Thus, community coalitions have been suggested as mechanisms to build capacity to mount effective prevention initiatives in communities. For example, Koleck et al (2009) conducted a qualitative study on community and primary health care involvement on alcohol and tobacco actions in seven European countries. They concluded that in order to manage tobacco-and alcohol-related problems, a comprehensive community-based approach, that also includes primary health care teams and policymakers is required. A benefit of community-based prevention campaigns which involve tailored multi-faceted campaigns involving collaboration from various agencies and organisations, is that they can target and give advice to people who do not actively contact health care but may have alcohol and drug issues.


However, community projects and coalitions face significant challenges in focusing efforts and resources towards those interventions which are likely to have optimum impact and lead to change. Thus, reorienting and enhancing the efforts of existing services is a crucial issue for communities with limited resources.


Asset based approaches advocate the concept of assets as the collective resources which individuals and communities have that both protect against negative health outcomes and promote positive well being. Such approaches value the skills and capabilities of a community, focus on identifying the protective factors that support health and wellbeing, and attempt to redress the balance between meeting needs and nurturing the strengths and resources of people and communities. However, such approaches are not a replacement for investing in service improvement, with it being suggested that the move to such approaches forming an integral part of mainstream service delivery will require a change in both individual and organisational attitudes, values and practice (Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2011).

Another crucial issue is ensuring that those interventions implemented are based on sound evidence, as many communities continue to use prevention strategies that have not been shown to be effective.


Gilligan et al (2011) emphasised the need for evidence based methodologically rigorous intervention research to guide alcohol harm reduction programmes at the population, system or community level.


They present suggestions (which were supported by a survey of researchers) of the most important factors in relation to producing high-quality intervention research. Routine collection of relevant data, publication of negative results and reconsideration of funding priorities were ranked highest in terms of their importance in increasing intervention research.


A further issue is ensuring that such interventions are effectively tailored to both the community setting and target group. Holleran Steiker (2008) highlighted the value of involving youth in the cultural adaptation of evidence based drug prevention curricula and recommended that community settings adapt curricula to meet their youths’ unique needs in order to be effective, particularly those communities with diverse cultures. She outlined that many drug prevention curricula often fail to be relevant and engaging to the youth who receive them, and so adaptation can be critical in situations where the culture of the audience is unique, ethnically, socially, organisationally, or economically.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Community Approaches

Diversionary Approaches

The link between exercise and sports participation and substance use


There is conflicting evidence in the literature as to whether exercise and sports participation is linked positively or negatively to substance use.


To illustrate, research has indicated that exercise and sports/leisure activity participation is associated with substance use, and as such that leisure may be an important context of substance use prevention. For example, Moore and Werch (2008) examined self-reported exercise frequency and substance use among first year college students who self-identified as drinkers (n = 391) and found that frequent exercisers drank significantly more often and a significantly greater quantity than did infrequent exercisers.


Huurree et al (2010) found that among adolescent Finnish males, leisure-time spent daily among friends (among other factors including parental divorce) was a strong predictor of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Tibbits et al (2009) examined the association between leisure activity participation and substance use among South African 8th graders (n = 3,497) and found that leisure activity profiles were significantly associated with past-month alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Peck et al (2008) reported that childhood problem behaviour and adolescent sport participation can, but do not necessarily, predict heavy drinking in adulthood. They analysed data from four waves of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions which provided data on participants aged 12 to approximately 28 years. They found that the relationship between adolescent sport activity and heavy alcohol use in later life was obtained primarily for sport participants who were also using more than the average amount of alcohol and other drugs at age 18. Similarly, children who were characterised by relatively high levels of sport participation, aggression and other problem behaviour at age 12 were more likely to become sport participants who used more than the average amount of alcohol and other drugs at age 18.


Mays et al (2010) investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviours using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2001 (n=8,271). The results indicated that greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who only took part in sports, indicating that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities. They concluded that sports may represent an important context for alcohol interventions among adolescents.


Finlay et al (2012) conducted surveys with first year college students (n = 717) examining the relationship between day-to-day activities (volunteering, spiritual activities, media use, socialising, entertainment/campus events and clubs, athletics, classes, working for pay) and alcohol use. Findings indicated that alcohol use was higher among individuals who spent more time involved in athletics and socialising and lower among students who spent more time in spiritual and volunteering activities.


However, other studies have shown a positive relationship between participation in sports and exercise and substance use.


Taliaferro et al (2010) highlighted that the ways in which adolescents spend their out-of-school time is an important factor for predicting positive youth development. They examined relationships between sport participation and numerous health risk behaviours among high school students. Data from the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (from 1999 through 2007) was analysed. They found that among white students, sport participation related to multiple positive health behaviours. Conversely, ethnic minority athletes showed fewer positive health behaviours and some negative behaviours. Martha et al (2009) examined the relationship between sports and alcohol consumption among French students (n = 1,356). Results indicated that engaging in physical activity (whether or not it takes place within an institution) and practising martial art were negatively related to heavy episodic drinking.


Terry-McElrath and O’Malley (2011) investigated the relationship between participation in sports, athletics or exercising and substance use in early adulthood using longitudinal data (n = 11,741). Results indicated that increased participation in sports, athletics or exercising was related to significantly lower substance use frequency at age 18 and through significantly and negatively correlated growth trajectories through early adulthood. Thus, they concluded that encouraging exercise among young people may relate to lower substance use levels throughout early adulthood. However, additional research by Terry-McElrath et al (2011) highlighted an important difference between exercise and team sport participation in relation to adolescent substance use. Using longitudinal data, they found that higher levels of exercise were associated with lower levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use but that higher levels of athletic team participation were associated with higher levels of high school alcohol use.


Other research has indicated mixed results for different types of substance use, generally indicating that sport is negatively associated with alcohol but positively associated with tobacco and cannabis use. For example, Lisha and Sussman (2010) reviewed studies on high school and college sports involvement and drug use and found that participation in sport was related to higher levels of alcohol consumption, but lower levels of both cigarette smoking and illegal drug use. Wichstrom and Wichstrom (2009) conducted surveys among Norweigan high school students between 1992 and 2006 (n = 3,251). They found that those involved initially in team sports had greater growth in alcohol consumption, but lower growth in tobacco use and cannabis use, during the adolescent and early adult years compared to those involved in technical or strength sports. However, taking part in endurance sports, as opposed to technical or strength sports, predicted reduced growth in alcohol intoxication and tobacco use. Thus, they concluded that sports participation in adolescence, and participation in team sports in particular, may increase the growth in alcohol intoxication during late adolescent and early adult years, whereas participation in team sports and endurance sports may reduce later increase in tobacco and cannabis use.


Weinstock (2010) highlighted how substance use often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. They proposed exercise as an intervention for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders due to its numerous physical and mental health benefits. It was also posited that offering interventions for heavy drinking that do not stigmatise or require an individual to see a mental health professional may increase the utility and acceptability of the intervention and ultimately increase the number of individuals effectively treated.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Diversionary Approaches

Brief Intervention Approaches

Alcohol use has been identified by the World Health Organisation as the second greatest risk to public health in developed countries. Brief Interventions (BIs) are one preventative approach to address this issue. In fact, Graham and Mackinnon (2010) described Scotland’s programme to deliver alcohol BIs for hazardous drinkers as a ‘key plank’ of the wider strategy to reduce population alcohol consumption.


BIs can generally be described as short-term preventive consultations to detect problematic alcohol use in an early stage and to motivate nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers to change their behaviour or seek treatment. BIs may involve 1 to 5 sessions of 5 to 60 minutes of structured information and advice giving, or counselling based approaches such as brief motivational interviewing (BMI), wherein patients’ own motivations are empathetically explored and guided toward change.


BMI incorporate principles of motivational interviewing (MI), such as empathetic and reflective listening and commonly include the provision of individualised feedback. Feedback typically consists of information about the individual’s alcohol use, peer and environmental influences on drinking, and reflects the individual’s beliefs about alcohol. BMI present normative information on drinking to correct an individuals’ inflated perceptions of the amount of alcohol that peers typically consume (i.e., descriptive norms). This tailored approach is seen to perhaps be more effective than the delivery of a more general prevention message, due to the fact that the individual is more likely to identify with and pay more attention to personally relevant information than to general information.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Brief Intervention Approaches

Education

Alcohol misuse in young people is a cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, the criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, and parents. Much of the prevention work in relation to alcohol and drugs has been conducted in schools or educational establishments, with school-based drug and alcohol prevention curricula arguably constituting the nation’s primary strategy for preventing adolescent drug use. Key reasons for intervention work concern the prevalence of substance use in the general population, with its social, health, and economic consequences, and the influence of factors originating in school environments on substance use. Schools are considered an ideal setting for programmes aimed at decreasing the prevalence of health risk behaviours as: they provide access to young people at a time when they are vulnerable to emotional problems and risk taking behaviour; young people spend half their waking hours at school; and the quality of experiences with teachers and peers can have a positive impact on young people’s health and emotional well-being.


Studies in the United States, Australia, and Europe have indicated that early onset of alcohol use is a predictor of substance abuse and alcohol dependence in adulthood. The implementation of effective prevention programmes is a potential powerful tool to lower the prevalence of substance use in early adolescents and to delay the age of onset of substance use. Research has shown that a developmental window of opportunity exists to intervene with adolescents who have not yet initiated or have recently initiated substance use; substantial public health benefits might be gained if appropriately-timed interventions are applied to delay onset or, following initiation, to delay transition to more serious use (Anthony, 2003).


In the past, many school-based prevention programmes have been developed and implemented. In general, three major types of school-based interventions have been used :

  1. Knowledge programmes aim to enhance students’ knowledge on biological and psychological aspects of substance use in order to accomplish a more negative attitude towards substance use, which will deter actual use.
  2. Cognitive-affective programmes argue that psychological factors place students in vulnerable positions and therefore aim to improve students’ self-confidence and self-awareness.
  3. Social influence programmes aim to improve social and/or life skills in order to prevent peer pressure leading to substance use.


There is general consensus in the literature that social influence programmes seem to be most effective, in that they more often show positive effects compared to knowledge and affective programmes (Paglia and Room, 1999).


Despite schools theoretically being an ideal setting for accessing adolescents and preventing initiation of substance use, there is limited evidence of effective interventions in this setting. Stigler et al (2011) concluded that school interventions that are most effective are theory driven, address social norms around alcohol use, build personal and social skills helping students resist pressure to use alcohol, involve interactive teaching approaches, use peer leaders, integrate other segments of the population into the programme, be delivered over several sessions and years, provide training and support to facilitators, and be culturally and developmentally appropriate.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Education

Training

The current chapter discusses the role of training and support for staff when working with those with alcohol or drug issues, or when providing related programmes or interventions. It should be noted that much of the research is undertaken with respondents working in primary care, and so the generalisability of findings to non-primary care staff working in prevention and education is questionable. However, there are common themes indicating the need for staff to be provided with training and support that is tailored to their needs. This does highlight a gap in the research, in relation to the training needs of other staff and professional groups.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Training

Parenting Programmes

Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and longterm ramifications. The average age at which young people in Europe start to drink is twelve and a half, and during the last decade, the quantity of alcohol consumed by younger adolescents in the UK has increased. Among 13-15 year olds in Greater Glasgow and Clyde who drank alcohol, the average age for alcohol onset was 12 years old and among those who had used drugs, the average age for drug use initiation was 13 years old (Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyles and Substance Use Survey, 2010). While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child’s risk for initiation of substance misuse, parents can have a significant influence on their children’s decisions about these issues. Thus, of the many risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and drug misuse among young people, psychosocial factors within the family are particularly important.


Longitudinal studies investigating factors associated with adolescent alcohol use have identified a number of parenting variables as influential in delaying adolescent alcohol initiation and reducing consequent alcohol use. These include :

  • parental modelling
  • provision of alcohol specific communication
  • parental disapproval of drinking
  • consistent parental discipline, with parents employing an authoritative parenting style characterised by warmth and support combined with rules and control
  • provision of positive parental reinforcementparental monitoring (reflecting a knowledge about their child’s whereabouts and social connections)
  • the quality of the parent-child relationship (including the level of conflict between the parent and the child, parental support, parental involvement, amount of time parents spend with their children, and the level and quality of communication between the parent and the child).


The timing of prevention programmes is commonly discussed in the literature. Given the likelihood of engaging in these behaviours during teenage years, pre-adolescence is seen to be a critical time to implement prevention programmes. Matriculation from high school to college/university is also typified by an increase in alcohol use and related harm for many students. Therefore, this transition period is an ideal time for preventive interventions to target alcohol use and related problems. Given the harm associated with alcohol misuse, there is a consensus that adolescents should avoid drinking for as long as possible. For this recommendation to be adopted, parents and guardians of adolescents require information about strategies that they can employ to prevent or reduce their adolescent’s alcohol use that are supported by evidence.


Universal family-focused preventive intervention efforts have focused primarily on teaching parenting skills such as parental monitoring and the use of appropriate discipline techniques that have been demonstrated to be related to adaptive adolescent outcomes such as delayed initiation of substance use (Kumpfer and Alvarado, 2003). In the UK most efforts to prevent alcohol misuse depend on schools as a means of reaching large numbers of young people and, potentially, their families (Velleman, 2009) with classroom-based education for children as an established part of the curriculum. The incorporation of activities or materials for parents or the engagement of parents and children in joint activities has been identified as an important aspect of school-based prevention interventions, driven by the recognition that the family environment plays an important role in shaping young people’s attitudes and behaviour towards alcohol, as well as influencing a range of both protective and risk factors (Velleman et al, 2005). The UK Government provides strong strategic support for school-based substance misuse education and for prevention initiatives which involve external agencies and children’s families, with all governments now expecting schools to engage with the wider community. Additionally, most schools in the UK have made a commitment to becoming health promoting schools, which involves linking participation to health.


A number of features have been identified which are likely to increase the effectiveness of the interventions. These include a focus on harm reduction rather than abstinence; interactive activities and delivery; targeting children at primary school, when they are less likely to have experimented with alcohol or other substances; and involving parents as well as children directly in the interventions.


Yap et al (2011) highlighted that despite substantial evidence demonstrating the important influence that parents have on adolescent drinking, evidence based preventative interventions that help parents to reduce the risk that their child will develop later alcohol use problems are lacking. Thus, other than general guidance on parenting styles that are influential in reducing adolescent alcohol use, existing interventions do not clearly describe specific parenting strategies that can be readily put into practice. For this literature to be informative for parents, the parenting styles identified need to be made more explicit as individual, actionable parenting strategies. An additional  issue is that parental participation in parenting interventions is generally low.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Parenting Programmes

Social Marketing

Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques to help in the acquisition of a behaviour that is beneficial for the health of a target population (Weinreich, 1999). Although there is no universally agreed definition of social marketing, it is generally accepted that it is more than mass media or public education campaigns. While overlapping with public health, social marketing differs in that it involves the strategic use of marketing principles and practices. Below is a generally accepted definition :


The application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programmes designed to influence the voluntary or involuntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve the welfare of individuals and society. (Donovan and Henley, 2003)


Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programmes designed to motivate voluntary behavioural change. However, the difference is that social marketing promotes products, ideas or services for a voluntary behaviour change among its target audience whereas in commercial marketing, a product or a service is traded for economic gains without any concern for healthy behaviour change in the target audience. Social marketing uses a range of techniques and approaches, commonly known as a ‘marketing mix’, to help change people’s behaviour in a clearly defined and positive way. The main aims of alcohol social marketing are to encourage people who are drinking at increasing and higher risk levels to reduce their consumption and to provide the necessary support and information to help them to do so.


All social marketing activity needs to be evaluated at some level to identify how relevant, effective and efficient it is in meeting objectives. The benefits of evaluation include: more effective marketing interventions; more experimentation; improved efficiency by investing in the things that work best; better informed budgeting processes; more accurate forecasting of outcomes; more effective management of expectations about results; increased consumer knowledge and insight; and enhanced credibility of social marketing (Alcohol Learning Centre, 2010).


Throughout the literature, a number of authors have discussed the features, theoretical principles and concepts of social marketing campaigns. These are :

  • A consumer orientation – Individuals are active participants in the social marketing process. Campaigns need to be aware of and responsive to their needs and aspirations.
  • The concept of exchange – For exchange to occur, valuable benefits must be offered to individuals who must give up something valuable to gain these benefits.
  • The use of market segmentation – This breaks a population of interest into groups based on lifestyle, demographic and attitudinal similarities. Groups are selected and campaigns developed to respond to the needs of different audience segments.
  • Competition – This comes from the behaviours that targeted audiences prefer over the behaviours that social marketers seek to promote.
  • Environmental influences – These are factors outside the control of campaign designers and include sociocultural forces and demographic trends.
  • Research and evaluation – Formative research is needed to underpin a campaign’s design.


Social marketing approaches have been shown to be successful in reaching population groups and improving behavioural outcomes across a range of public health areas (although failure is also not uncommon), particularly if they are multi-modal and carefully designed to engage particular groups.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Social Marketing

Workplace

Substance use is associated with a range of negative consequences for the workplace, with high-risk alcohol consumption affecting a substantial proportion of workers, particularly in some subgroups. In fact, it has been argued that a large proportion of the estimated alcohol-attributable costs to society are borne by workplaces. Some individuals drink before work, during work hours, or work under the influence of alcohol. The impact of alcohol on the workplace is wide ranging, including a risk of accidents leading to injury, higher rates of poor health and absenteeism, and generally negative effects on the atmosphere in the workplace, leading to increased costs for both employers and employees. Exposure to employee substance use in the workplace is also related to several negative outcomes (poor workplace safety, increased work strain, and decreased morale) among workers who do not use substances at work.


The workplace has been identified as a promising setting for health promotion. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol prevention efforts in recent years, including programmes focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief interventions, and changing the work environment. However, it is generally thought that workplace settings remain underutilised for delivering evidenced-based health interventions. For example, previous studies have suggested that the occupational health services (OHS) could be more actively involved in alcohol prevention (Holmqvist et al., 2008).


There are several reasons for workplaces to engage in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol and drug related problems. The existing high prevalence and increase in the consumption of alcohol and drugs among active employees in the workforce has created a new challenge for OHS, as the use of alcohol and drugs may affect workplace safety and productivity. Ames and Bennett (2011) highlight the advantage of the workplace as a setting for interventions as they have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programmes and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. In addition, workplaces appear to be appropriate sites for conducting early interventions, because most people spend substantial periods of time at work.


Several studies have highlighted risk and protective factors associated with, in particular, alcohol intake. Protective factors (which have been shown to promote lower levels of alcohol intake) include decision latitude (skill utilisation, decision authority), job control, social support, job pride, stimulation, paid training, job satisfaction, and job gratifications. Risk factors include psychological and physical demands, role overload, working hours, harassment, and job insecurity.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Workplace

Harm reduction – Alcohol (Vulnerable Groups)

Most of the content in the Prevention and Education Model focuses on harm reduction approaches linked to alcohol and drugs, e.g. community and environmental approaches, consideration of risk and protective factors, education and parenting approaches etc. This chapter focuses on examples of harm reduction alcohol approaches for some of the particularly vulnerable groups living in our society.


This includes those individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of alcohol related harm, or whose own or another’s alcohol use can make them vulnerable to other negative consequences. For example, individual’s involved in or affected by issues such as youth offending, criminality, homelessness, drink driving, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and domestic violence.


The current chapter discusses two of these issues in more detail –

  1. fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and
  2. the link between alcohol, crime and offending.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Harm reduction – Alcohol (Vulnerable Groups)

Harm reduction – Drugs

Marginalised populations including people who inject drugs are more negatively affected by the gap between health needs and available services. Young people at risk of injecting, or those already experimenting with injecting drugs, find themselves isolated from health and prevention services, which increases the risks for health and social harms (Merkinaite et al, 2010).


The concept of harm reduction means that decreasing drug-related harms is given an even higher priority than reduction of drug consumption (Wodak and McLeod, 2008), meaning that individuals can access needed services, including non-judgmental and low-threshold approaches offered by harm reduction programmes. Rhodes (2009) discusses harm reduction as being contingent upon the social context, comprising interactions between individuals and environments and how this impacts on the production and reduction of drug harms. Wodak and McLeod (2008) maintain that it has been known since the early 1990s that HIV among injecting drug users (IDU) can be effectively, safely and costeffectively controlled by the early implementation of a comprehensive package of harm reduction strategies. Strategies include: explicit and peer-based education about the risk of HIV from sharing injecting equipment; needle syringe programmes (NSP); drug treatment (including opiate substitution treatment (OST)) and community development.


Caulkins et al (2009) discuss how opponents of harm reduction fear that reducing harmfulness might increase use, while opponents of use reduction fear that efforts to reduce use can increase harmfulness. They propose that both strategies have a role in an intervention approach, but at different points depending on where the individual is on their drug use continuum, the particular drug, the social cost structure, and the stage of the drug epidemic.

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Harm reduction – Drugs

Appendices
Summary

In 2008, the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model was widely distributed following ratification from the then Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Action Team.


The five key aims of the Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model are :

  1. To continue to promote consistent practice and standards, in relation to prevention and education practice across all CH(C)P’s in Greater Glasgow and Clyde.
  2. To encourage prevention and education practitioners to agree on, and then take ownership of, a baseline definition for prevention and education that will then inform universal working in the field.
  3. To raise the profile of prevention and education as a range of interventions worthwhile investing in at a local and area-wide level by strengthening planning and partnership working across all Tiers and Core Elements.
  4. To raise awareness of the updated Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model which includes a working definition for prevention and education, a prevention and education tiered model, 12 evidence based core elements, and support functions.
  5. To create a more strategic, outcome-focused, co-ordinated, cohesive, sustainable and planned approach to best practice. This will focus on the longer term structural development for prevention and education, built on evidenced based approaches and a performance management framework.


Since the ratification and distribution of the model in 2008, there has been growing evidence of dedicated central and local structures and services with a focus on prevention and education being developed and implemented. There has also been positive reporting of a flurry of co-ordinated activity that directly links to the 12 core elements in the model being delivered in the alcohol and drug prevention and education field through outcome focused action plans and budgets co-ordinated by these dedicated prevention and education structures.


In 2011 a multi-disciplinary reference group was formed to support the review of the existing model using the latest available evidence base. To ensure the review was evidence-based and up-to-date, the group commissioned an independent researcher from Dudleston Harkins Social Research Ltd. to carry out an extensive review of the International alcohol and drug prevention and education evidence base. The review generally focused on work undertaken between 2008 and 2012, unless the research was seen to be of particular relevance. Also unless otherwise stated in the chapters, the research mentioned in this document was conducted in the United States.

Key aims of the evidence review were as follows :

  1. That it updates the existing Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model by reinforcing the existing evidence base and identifying new evidence in order to inform future practice.
  2. That it draws on theoretical models.
  3. That the evidence is evaluated in relation to whether the evidence relates to short term or long term outcomes.
  4. That the review has a focus on outcome-focused work.
  5. That the review considers how outcomes for the Prevention and Education Model should be set including whether the review suggests the need for re-consideration of the core elements.
  6. To consider for each piece of work how practice is evidenced, how the work is evaluated, or how the findings are demonstrated.
  7. To consider which types and tiers the work falls into (e.g. initiation to risky behaviour, harm reduction, harm minimisation).
  8. To consider whether the work has a population or targeted approach.
  9. To consider up-to-date and innovative methods including digital techniques used in social marketing.
  10. To consider the transferability of evidence and the limitations of the findings.


Given the extent of literature available in this field, the decision was made to focus on academic research using the following stages :

  • Stage 1 – The identification of key words to be used in the search
  • Stage 2 – Keyword searches of electronic databases and publication search sources
  • Stage 3 – A snowballing approach
  • Stage 4 – Review and summarising


It is hoped that the Prevention and Education Model will continue to provide an overarching commissioning framework for alcohol and drug prevention and education provision across the Greater Glasgow and Clyde area that gives clear guidance on what constitutes good practice. This will then inform the future planning and delivery of alcohol and drug prevention and education work, in turn, providing the opportunity for partners to facilitate and deliver prevention and education structures fit for purpose that address issues of equity of provision, cost effectiveness and accountability.


The Prevention and Education Model is not meant as a definitive prescriptive guide but instead aims to stimulate discussion and debate amongst strategic planners and practitioners of prevention and education approaches.


This therefore creates a vehicle of opportunity in which to explore, understand and respond to the capacity, funding difficulties and constraints inherent in translating theories of good practice into workable and achievable objectives. In doing so, this will help identify appropriate ways forward for the future planning and delivery of prevention and education, in localities and across the Greater Glasgow and Clyde wide area.


We hope that planners and practitioners alike can now use the evidence base within this document and the updated Greater Glasgow and Clyde Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model to inform and direct their existing work programmes and inspire future practice and initiatives in the alcohol and drug field.


Linda Malcolm, Health Improvement Lead (Alcohol and Drugs) – GGC
Dr Catherine Chiang, Public Health Directorate – GGC
Dr Judith Harkins, Dudleston Harkins Social Research Ltd.


(June 2013)

GGC Alcohol and Drug Prevention and Education Model (2012) – Summary

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